- July 1: Feast day of Saint Aaron.
- July 2: Elizabeth Tudor was born in 1492.
- July 3: Hugh Capet was crowned king of the Franks in 987.
- July 4: Saint Ulrich of Augsburg died in 974.
- July 5: Joan of the Tower, queen consort of Scotland, was born in 1321.
- July 6: Richard the Lion-Heart ascended the throne of England in 1189.
- July 7: Madeleine of Valois died in 1537.
- July 8: Saint Grimbald died in 903.
- July 9: Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg was born in 1511.
- July 10: Emperor Hadrian died in 138.
- July 11: Martin Frobisher sights Greenland in 1576.
- July 12: Hartmann Schedel’s Nuremberg Chronicle is printed in 1493.
- July 13: Alexander III is crowned king of the Scots.
- July 14: Louis VIII became king of France in 1223.
- July 15: Saint Bonaventure died in 1274.
- July 16: Saint Clare of Assisi was born in 1194.
- July 17: Count Baldwin VI of Flanders died in 1070.
- July 18: Godfrey de Bouillon, crusader knight, died in 1100.
- July 19: Philipa of Lancaster died in 1415.
- July 20: Claude, queen of France, died in 1524.
- July 21: Feast day of Saint Victor of Marseilles.
- July 22: William Wallace is defeated at the Battle of Falkirk.
- July 23: Saint Bridget of Sweden died in 1373.
- July 24: Mathilda of Tuscany died in 1115.
- July 25: Casimir I the Restorer was born in 1016.
- July 26: Pope Celestine died in 432.
- July 27: Conrad II of Italy died in 1101.
- July 28: Rodrigo de Bastedas, conquistador and explorer, died in 1527.
- July 29: Olaf II of Norway died in 1030.
- July 30: Italian painter Giorgio Vasari was born in 1511.
- July 31: Ignatius of Loyola died in 1556.
Tag Archives: Bridget
In today’s post, we take a look at an area which has an amazing diversity of diminutive suffixes used in women’s names: medieval Germanic dialects (including Dutch ones from the Low Countries, because of their close kinship with Low German suffixes).
In terms of the vocabulary that we introduced in our previous post, German feminine nicknames were, for the most part, formed by adding such diminutive suffixes, rather than creating a hypocoristic form by truncating it (there are a few exceptions, such as Els, from Elizabeth, and Greta from Margaret.) These diminutive suffixes varied by dialect and by region, making it possible to identify, sometimes with a high level precision, where a name comes from on the basis of the type of suffix that it uses. So let’s start by taking a look at the distribution of the various dialects, and their divisions into Low German, Middle (Central) German, and High (Upper) German:
Starting in the south, High German dialects are typified by diminutives formed from -lin, including variants such as Swiss -li and Bavarian -el or -l. Examples of names formed with this diminutive suffix include Aͤnnlin, Aͤnlin, Aͤndlin, and Bridlin, Elsslin, and Bettlin, diminutives of Anne, Brid (Bridget), and Elizabeth (respectively) found in Rottweil, Baden-Württemberg, in 1441.  From the same source, we also have Keterlin, Kaͤtherlin, Kaͤterlin, diminutives of Katherine. These particular examples, from Rottweil, are likely examples of -lin added to a hypocoristic of Katherine, but other examples, from further south and east, may involve the Bavarian or Austrian diminutive -erl plus -lin.
-lin and -lyn are typical of Middle High German; it wasn’t until the shift into Early New High German that the spelling -lein starts to appear, such as Marlein (from Mary), Grethlein (from Margaret), Ketherlein (from Katherine), and Elßlein (from Elizabeth), all found in Kulmbach in 1495. 
People are often surprised to find nicknames in medieval records, since there can be a misconception that the only things that made it into medieval documents were the formal forms of names. Certainly it is the case that there were probably many more nicknames in use than the documentary evidence displays. The examples we have in written records were almost certainly predated by spoken examples, perhaps by centuries. But nicknames were not wholly excluded from formal documents: If this was the form of the name that the person was known by, this would’ve been the form used to refer to him in a record. As it turns out, the suffix -lin or -lyn are relatively old: German masculine examples can be found in Latinized contexts from the 13th C, including Choncelinus 1280 and Cunzelin 1294 (from Conrad), Reinboldelinus 1286 (from Reinbald), and Volfelinus c. 1236 (from Wolf).  But we’ll say more about masculine nicknames in another post! Another diminutive suffix whose use can be dated to at least the 13th C is -i, in the feminine names Beli 1267 and Jutzci 1295. 
In Low German, -ke(n) and its derivative are typical, found also in the Low Countries, and connected to Slavic -ka. (Diminutives of -ke also stretch further north, being found in Scandinavia.) While we have more examples of this suffix used with men’s names than women’s names, this is primarily an artifact of our data (containing more men’s names than women’s), rather than reflecting anything about the reality of the use of the suffix by women. Examples of this from across the Low German-speaking spectrum include An(n)eke (from Anne), found in Estonia and Latvia, Heilka, a diminutive of some name beginning with Old High German heil, hele ‘whole’ found in the mid 12th C, and Kattryneke, also found in Latvia. In the Low Countries, we can see examples such as Saerken (from Sara), Aelken (from Alice), Neelken (from Cornelia) , Claerken (from Clara), Grietken (from Margaret), Mariken (from Mary), Jacomynken (a double diminutive from Jacomine, a variant of Jacoba via the form Jacoma)  as well as Tanneken (from Anne), a variant which we just found an example of amongst the Dutch Protestant community in London in the 16th C.
In between these, -chen is characteristic of Middle German dialects, and it is a cousin of another Dutch diminutive, -ge(n). Most of our examples of this, so far, come from the Low Countries, with names like Claertgen (from Clara), Aeltgen (from Alice), Grietgen (from Margaret), Ariaentgen and Adriaentgen (from Adriana), and Maritgen, Marijtgen, and Marrijtgen from (from Mary) .
 Mack, Eugen, Das Rottweiler Steuerbuch von 1441. Königsfestgabe des Rottweiler Geschichts und Altertumsvereins unter der Schirmherrschaft Seiner Majestät König Wilhelms II von Württemberg. (Tübingen, H. Laupp, 1917.), pp. 126-151
 Socin, Adolf, Mittelhochdeutsches Namenbuch. Nach oberrheinischen Quellen des 12. und 13. Jahrhunderts (Basel: Helbing & Lichtenhahn, 1903; Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1966), pp. 10, 31, 48-9, 52-3, 63, 174.
 Wilhelm Lederer, Kulmbacher Einwohner 1495, in: Geschichte am Obermain Band 3, Jahresgabe 1965/66, Lichtenfels, S. 71-81.
 Daniel van der Meulen, Brieven en Andere Bescheiden Betreffende Daniel Van der Meulen, 1584-1600: Deel 1, Augustus 1584-September 1585, (‘s-Gravenhage : M. Nijhoff, 1986-)
 Fonds Plaiser, Antwerpsch Archievenblad.
 van de Spiegel, Ronald & Frans van Rooijen, “Kohieren van Het Weekgeld 1573” (http://www.interphrase.nl/frans/FransWeb/Archivalia/WEEKGE.INL.htm)
Here’s the full monthly calendar of our #OnThisDay posts on twitter:
- November 1: Empress Mathilda was deposed as Lady of the English in 1141.
- November 2: Emma of France died in 934.
- November 3: Benvenuto Celllini, Italian artist, was born in 1500.
- November 4: Sophia of Bavaria, queen consort of the Romans and Bohemia, died in 1428.
- November 5: The feast day of St. Felix of Valois.
- November 6: Juana la Loca was born in 1479.
- November 7: Constans II was born in 630.
- November 8: Julian of Norwich was born in 1342.
- November 9: Sancha of Castille died in 1208.
- November 10: Bridget of York was born in 1480.
- November 11: Mathilda of Scotland was crowned queen of England in 1100.
- November 12: Cnut the Dane died in 1035.
- November 13: St. Augustine of Hippo was born in 354.
- November 14: Maurice, prince of Orange, was born in 1567.
- November 15: Justin II becomes emperor of Byzantium in 565.
- November 16: Edward I becomes king of England in 1272.
- November 17: Elizabeth I becomes queen of England in 1558.
- November 18: Antipope Sylvester IV was enthroned in 11015.
- November 19: Pope Anastasius II died in 498.
- November 20: Edmund the Martyr dies in 869 (or 870).
- November 21: García, king of Navarre, died in 1150.
- November 22: Erik V of Denmark died in 1286
- November 23: Ferdinand III conquered Seville in 1248
- November 24: Joan of Arc beseiged La Charite in 1429.
- November 25: Malcolm II of Scotland died in 1034.
- November 26: Infanta Catarina of Portugal was born in 1436.
- November 27: Byzantine Emperor Maurice died in 602.
- November 28: Pope Gregory III died in 741.
- November 29: Joachim Viadan, Swiss Humanist, was born in 1484.
- November 30: Saint Gregory of Tours was born c538.