- March 1: Louis the Pious was restored as Holy Roman Emperor in 834.
- March 2: Dirk VI becomes count of Holland in 1121.
- March 3: Dutch theologian Gijsbert Voet was born in 1589.
- March 4: Saint Adrian of Nicomedia was martyred in 306.
- March 5: David II of Scotland was born in 1324.
- March 6: Ferdinand Magellan arrives in Guam in 1521.
- March 7: Emperor Constantine declares Sunday a day of rest i n321.
- March 8: Urraca of León and Castile died in 1126.
- March 9: Saint Frances of Rome died in 1440.
- March 10: Agnes Blannbekin, Austrian mystic, died in 1315.
- March 11: Marie de France, Countess of Champagne, died in 1198.
- March 12: Cesare Borgia died in 1507.
- March 13: The bones of St Nicephorus were interred in Constantinople in 874.
- March 14: Catherine Cornaro, queen of Cyprus, sold Cyrpus to Venice in 1489.
- March 15: On this day in 44BC, Julius Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March.
- March 16: On this day in 1485, Anne Neville, queen consort of England, died.
- March 17: The feast of Saint Patrick.
- March 18: Edward the Martyr, king of the English, died in 978.
- March 19: Alexander III of Scotland died in 1286.
- March 20: Cecily of York, daughter of Edward IV, was born in 1469.
- March 21: St. Angela Merici was born in 1474.
- March 22: Ferdinand II commissioned Amerigo Vespucci in 1508.
- March 23: Margaret d’Anjou was born in 1430.
- March 24: Harun al-Rashid died in 809.
- March 25: Blanche of Lancaster was born in 1345.
- March 26: Conrad II was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1027.
- March 27: Rachel Akerman, Austrian poet, was born in 1522.
- March 28: Saint Theresa of Ávila was born in 1515.
- March 29: Arthur I of Brittany was born in 1187.
- March 30: Saint Quirinus of Neuss died in 116.
- March 31: Francis I of France died in 1547.
Tag Archives: Constantine
In our previous post, we surveyed the percentage of diminutive and hypocoristic forms in the Dictionary’s dataset sorted according to modern countries, and one stand-out surprise was Estonia: Over 40% of our citations are nicknames of some form! Why is it that diminutives and hypocoristics were so popular in medieval Estonia?
Well, we aren’t exactly in a position to answer the why, but we can look at the what — what are the types of nickname patterns that we see, do they differ between men and women, can we say anything interesting about these patterns vs. those in nearby countries? That’s what we will explore in this post.
First, the feminine names: Only two of the nicknames belong to women, and both come from a Middle Low German contexts. The first is, in the vocabulary we introduced, a hypocoristic, formed by taking a name and truncating it to make a pet form. The example is Barbar, from Barbara. This same diminutive also shows up in Latvia, again in MLG contexts. The second is a diminutive, formed by adding the Low German diminutive suffix -ke, to the root name Anne, to result in the form Anneke. As with Barbar, Anneke also shows up in Latvia at roughly the same time.
This leaves over 600 diminutive forms left, of which nearly 10% — 53 — are Hans, a German hypocoristic of Johannes, one of the standard Latin forms of John, and if we add variants such as Hannes, Han, Hanß, etc., the number rises significantly. From about the middle of the 12th C on, John quickly became far and away the most popular man’s name throughout Europe. In German dialects, Hans, Hanns, Hannes, etc., were often as much more popular than Johannes or Johan than these names were than the next most popular.
So, one answer to the ‘why’ is: Because Low German was a standard documentary language in late medieval Estonia, and the most popular masculine name in late medieval Low German contexts was a diminutive, so that is why there are so many diminutives in medieval Estonia. (This, however, doesn’t address the other why question, which is why the nickname forms were more common than full forms!)
Hans makes up just under 10% of the masculine nicknames; a large percentage of the remainder are covered by just a handful of other names: Cord, Kord, Kort, a Low German hypocoristic of Conrad; Hintze, Hennyng, Hennynck, Heine, from Henry; Cleys, Clauwes, Claues, Claes, Cleys, Clawes, and numerous other hypocoristics of Nicholas; Ludike and Ludeke, from Louis; and Wynyke, a diminutive of any of various names beginning with wini ‘friend’. Other less common names also give rise to hypocoristics, such as Bastian, from Sebastian; Brosius, from Ambrose; and Aßmuß from Erasmus.
So much for the ordinary, every day nicknames, your Estonian Tom, Dick, and Harry, if you will. Let’s explore some of the unusual ones!
- Nicknames of Constantine: Coest, Kosst.
- Nicknames of Habakukk: Habbo, Köke, Kock.
- Nickname of Hubert: Hoppe.
- Nicknames of Jacob: Jaeck, Jack, Jacho, Kowpy, koup.
- Nickname of Joachim: Jachi.
- Nicknames of Joseph: Jessa, Seppo.
One thing of note is that many of these unusual hypocoristics derive from Biblical names.
We’ll close by looking at one name which, across Europe, is one of the most prolific spawner of nicknames: Theodoric. In Estonia alone, the name rivals John in popularity, and we have seventeen different nickname forms — most of which are diminutives of hypocoristics: Tideke, Tideken, Tideman, Tidike, Tijdeke, Tijdeman, Tijdike, Tile, Tous, Tydedeynk, Tydek, Tydeke, Tydeken, Tydeman, Tydike, Tydiken, Tyman.
This will not be the last time we see Theodoric when exploring this month’s topic!
- October 1: Edgar I was crowned King of the English in 959.
- October 2: Athalaric, king of the Ostrogoths, died in 543.
- October 3: Saint Francis of Assisi died in 1226.
- October 4: Saint Theresa of Avila died in 1582
- October 5: Alexios III of Trebizond was born in 1338.
- October 6: Samuel Tsar of Bulgaria died in 1014.
- October 7: Frederick I of Norway and Denmark was born in 1471.
- October 8: Demetrius Zvonimir was crowned king of Croatia in 1076.
- October 9: Denis, the Poet King of Portugal, was born in 1261.
- October 10: Pope Valentine died in 827.
- October 11: Pope Boniface died in 1303.
- October 12: Edwin King of Northumbria was killed in battle in 632/633.
- October 13: Eleanor, Queen of Castile, was born in 1162.
- October 14: William the Bastard won the Battle of Hastings in 1066.
- October 15: Pope Gregory XIII’s calendrical reform came into use in 1582.
- October 16: Jadwiga was crowned King of Poland in 1384.
- October 17: St. Ivo of Kermartin was born in 1253.
- October 18: Dagobert I was crowned king of the Franks in 629.
- October 19: St. Frideswide died in 727.
- October 20: Henry X of Bavaria died in 1139.
- October 21: Ferdinand Magellan discovered the Straits of Magellan in 1520.
- October 22: Charles Martel, king of the Franks, died in 741.
- October 23: Sweyn III of Denmark is killed in 1157.
- October 24: (DMNES team was out of town w/o internet access).
- October 25: Henry V of England defeated the French at Agincourt in 1415.
- October 26: Feast day of St Demetrius of Thessaloniki, who died in 306.
- October 27: Emperor Constantine had his Vision of the Cross in 312.
- October 28: Margaret I of Denmark died in 1412.
- October 29: Conradin, king of Sicily and Jerusalem, died in 1268.
- October 30: Cesare Borgia hosted the Banquet of Chestnuts in 1501.
- October 31: Nikephoros I became Byzantine emperor in 802.