Tag Archives: Edmund

Masc/Fem names: When do they differ?

We mentioned in our previous post how Latin records are so nice for uniquely identifying the gender of the bearer of names — someone who is filius Edwini is the son of a man named Edwin, while if he were filius Edwine he’d be the some of a woman called Edwina.

But how often is this merely a requirement of Latin grammar, that every word have one of three grammatical genders, and how often is this reflective of the underlying vernacular practice? Naturally, this depends on what the vernaculars are, and those which descended from Latin (French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese) are much more likely to keep an explicit grammatical distinction in the names. In Iberia, that shows up in the preponderance of women’s names ending in -a (though, of course, there are exceptions, such as Spanish and Catalan forms of Beatrice). In Italy, you see the same marking of feminine names, but often paired with a distinctive masculine ending in -o (as can be seen in the list of masculine/feminine pairs in 15th C Florence). In France, southern dialects tend towards Iberian practices, while in northern dialects, masculine names are generally unmarked, while feminine forms are derived by adding an -e (earlier) or doubling the final consonant and then adding an -e (later).

In England, however, the Latin forms often introduced distinctions not present in the vernacular. Withycombe, p. xxxv notes that:

Latin records of the 12th to 15th centuries show that the custom of giving masculine names to girls was also common in England; they appear in Latin with feminine endings, e.g., Philippa, Nicholaa, Alexandra, Jacoba, but it is clear that girls so named were in fact baptized and called Philip, Nicholas, Alexander, James, etc….Other names which were commonly used for girls were Gilbert, Aubrey, Reynold, Basil, Eustace, Giles, Edmund, Simon, Florence.

When the only references we have are in Latin, it is difficult to obtain evidence via which to test Withycombe’s assertion about the vernacular. However, once we start seeing records in Middle English and Early Modern English, then it is possible to see to what extent the feminine vernacular forms resemble the masculine.

The majority of our examples of Philipa in England are from the 16th C, and the majority of these are variants without the terminal (in fact, most of the examples with the -a are restricted to Devon, suggesting a regional early adoption of the Latin form as the vernacular.)

Feminine forms of Nicholas were never very common in England, and inspection of the entry for Nicole is only partly confirmatory of what Withycombe says. The vernacular forms have all lost the -a, but none of them have the -as. Instead, vernacular forms like Nichol and Nycoll look much more like the French feminine form of the name (and the spelling we took as the header name). This makes it more likely that girls named Nichol in the vernacular were named in accordance with the imported French form than simply given the masculine English form.

We don’t yet have any examples of Alexandra in England; Withycombe herself has only two early 13th C examples, adding that

Alexandra is found in England in 1205 and Alexandria in 1218, and these may have been named after a 4th-C martyr, though they are more likely to be mere latinizations of Alexander used as a girl’s name….Lyford 1655 gives Alexander as a f. name, and an early-14th-C English legendary gives Alisaundre as the name of the mother of St. Thomas of Canterbury

Further data will need to be collected to see more clearly how this feminine name appears in the vernacular.

Similarly, we have very few examples of Jacoba in English contexts, and curiously, all of them are diminutive forms: Jacobin, Jackett, and Jakett, all of which could equally easily be used by men.

Of the other names Withycombe mentions, only three of them do we have feminine examples from England. We have a handful of 12th-14th C examples of Basile in its Latin form Basilia, but our only vernacular example, in the 16th C, is not Basil but Basile, the usual French form. Eustacia in the vernacular is Eustice. The third name, Florence, is curious in that we have plenty of vernacular feminine examples of this spelling, — but no masculine ones! In fact, vernacular forms of the masculine version tend to end in -t, e.g., Florent.

It wasn’t until the end of the 16th C that you regularly start seeing Latinate forms, like Olivia, Isabella, Joanna, etc., instead of Olive, Isabel, Joan, etc., used in the vernacular. This is due in no small part to the influence of Shakespeare on English naming patterns at the turn of the 17th C, as he preferred Italian or Latinate forms of names in many cases. This penchant for the Latin -a ending can still be seen today, with the preponderance of feminine names given in English-speaking countries being ones ending with that letter or sound.

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An onomastic calendar: November

Here’s the full monthly calendar of our #OnThisDay posts on twitter:

  • November 1: Empress Mathilda was deposed as Lady of the English in 1141.
  • November 2: Emma of France died in 934.
  • November 3: Benvenuto Celllini, Italian artist, was born in 1500.
  • November 4: Sophia of Bavaria, queen consort of the Romans and Bohemia, died in 1428.
  • November 5: The feast day of St. Felix of Valois.
  • November 6: Juana la Loca was born in 1479.
  • November 7: Constans II was born in 630.
  • November 8: Julian of Norwich was born in 1342.
  • November 9: Sancha of Castille died in 1208.
  • November 10: Bridget of York was born in 1480.
  • November 11: Mathilda of Scotland was crowned queen of England in 1100.
  • November 12: Cnut the Dane died in 1035.
  • November 13: St. Augustine of Hippo was born in 354.
  • November 14: Maurice, prince of Orange, was born in 1567.
  • November 15: Justin II becomes emperor of Byzantium in 565.
  • November 16: Edward I becomes king of England in 1272.
  • November 17: Elizabeth I becomes queen of England in 1558.
  • November 18: Antipope Sylvester IV was enthroned in 11015.
  • November 19: Pope Anastasius II died in 498.
  • November 20: Edmund the Martyr dies in 869 (or 870).
  • November 21: GarcĂ­a, king of Navarre, died in 1150.
  • November 22: Erik V of Denmark died in 1286
  • November 23: Ferdinand III conquered Seville in 1248
  • November 24: Joan of Arc beseiged La Charite in 1429.
  • November 25: Malcolm II of Scotland died in 1034.
  • November 26: Infanta Catarina of Portugal was born in 1436.
  • November 27: Byzantine Emperor Maurice died in 602.
  • November 28: Pope Gregory III died in 741.
  • November 29: Joachim Viadan, Swiss Humanist, was born in 1484.
  • November 30: Saint Gregory of Tours was born c538.

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